Thiruvananthapuram (IPA: [t̪iruʋənən̪t̪əpurəm] ( listen)), also known as Trivandrum, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala. The city has a population of 957,730 inhabitants and a metropolitan population of 1.68 million making it the most populous city and the fifth most populous urban agglomeration in Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram is a major IT hub in India and contributes 80% of Kerala's software exports. The Technopark, Trivandrum is the largest Information Technology park in Asia in terms of area. Thiruvananthapuram is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the Evergreen city of India, the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills.[note 1] It is classified as a tier-2 city by the government of India. The world's richest temple Padmanabhaswamy Temple is located here. It was ruled by the Ays and was captured by the rulers of Venad in the 10th century. In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal, Kollam, Kayamkulam, Kottarakara, Kottayam, Changanassery, Meenachil, Poonjar and Ambalapuzha. In 1741 Marthanda Varma defeated the Dutch in the Battle of Colachel. In 1745, he shifted the capital of Travancore from Padmanabhapuram to Thiruvananthapuram. The kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha (Lord Vishnu). The rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Padmanabha.